Impact of Dietary Inclusion of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles on Performance and Manure Characteristics of Finishing Pigs
W.J. Powers and D.S. Bundy
Funded by NPPC and Biotechnology Byproducts Consortium
This research serves to meet several needs. First, a means of manipulating manure odor, through diet, will be explored. This is an important issue to livestock operators across the nation. An economical solution must be found in order to secure the viability of the industry. Controlling odor at the source of the problem is likely the most economic means. Although complete odor control may not be realized, by shifting the fermentation pattern of decomposing manure odor can be improved and potentially reduced in intensity. Water quality issues are also prevalent in many areas. The proposed research will study the impact of using DDGS to provide a more balanced diet thereby reducing nitrogen excretion and any potential threat to our water resources. Also, the potential value of an alternative feedstuff, DDGS, to the swine industry will be demonstrated.
Three isocaloric diets will be formulated to include 0, 5, or 10% DDGS. Soybean meal will serve as the alternative or additional protein source. All diets will be formulated to meet the minimum concentration of all required amino acids. Provision of amino acids in excess will be avoided as best possible based upon the hypothesis that excessive dietary nutrients contribute to manure malodor. Crystalline amino acids will be included as needed but preliminary formulation suggests that supplemental tryptophan and lysine will be needed in the DDGS diets only. Inclusion of SBM as the only protein source results in dietary excesses of cysteine and methionine.
Finishing animals will remain on trial from 180 to 240 lbs, or approximately one month. All measurements will be conducted twice weekly during the last three weeks of the month. Performance measurements will include animal weight and intake, followed by calculation of average daily gain, feed to gain ratio, and cost per unit gain.
Animals will be housed separately, grouped by diet to allow for collection of room air samples for odor evaluation. Evaluation will be made using dynamic dilution triangular forced-choice olfactometry in the laboratory of Dr. Dwaine Bundy, Department of Agriculture and Biosystems Engineering at Iowa State University. Room air samples will also be analyzed for protein metabolite concentrations using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
Animals will be housed in one of four isolated rooms, sorted by diet. One of the three diets will be assigned to each room. The fourth room will be used to replicate one of the diets. At the end of the month the experiment will be repeated with a new group of animals. A total of three replicates, or periods, will be conducted with the replicate diet rotating such that each diet is fed to four groups of animals.
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